I have recently finished a busy weekend of teaching on a doctoral study school. When asked how it went my immediate response is to state that a student walked out. This is met, so far, with a little hesitation as the recipient of this news struggles to find an adequate response.
Possible responses might include:
- Oh dear, what went wrong?
- What did you do to make her leave?
- Are you OK?
As they pause, ever so slightly, perhaps looking for a polite way to comment on this extraordinary revelation, I have added: “..and I take it as a badge of honour”.
That really sets the internal narratives going awry.
Of course, I say this a little tongue in cheek, but only a little.
It’s not that I am actually proud that a student felt so frustrated that they walked out. It was certainly not my intent to irritate and annoy. But irritate and annoy I did. But disrupt, upset? Well, in part, yes.
It appears that the first rumblings of discontent began early in the weekend.
It is at this point that I need to state that I had this group of students for the whole weekend. This is rather unusual in our programme. The study schools are for working professionals undertaking a professional doctorate in education. Normal practice is for students to experience a series of one-off lecture type sessions within an overall theme. The module I co-ordinate is modelled differently. On paper there is a more explicit coherence to the structure, flow and content. Built around the thematic title of ‘Approaches to Educational Policy Research’, the stated aim of the module is to introduce students to the field of education policy studies. The students are provided with a smaller set of pre-readings than usual. These readings have a dual purpose of providing them with subject content whilst also signposting different ways of approaching the study of education policy. The structure of the weekend is primarily organised around a set of linked and guided activities through which it is hoped students enhance their understanding of a number of key research approaches and appreciate the role of policy in their forthcoming research. Apart from the initial introductory session, the remainder of the weekend entails structured student inquiry and tutor facilitated reflection.
What perhaps makes this module different is that there is very little ‘content’, and hardly any ‘delivery’. This is deliberate. It is also what appeared to cause some upset.
The first news of possible discontent arrived at my door on the Sunday morning, that is following a full day of activity on the Saturday, and just before the students delivered their presentations. As with the overall design of the module I made clear that the presentations themselves were less important than the discussions that the students engaged in the process of working towards the presentations. Similarly, some of the ’empirical’ material for the weekend (a particular piece of English education reform) was a vehicle for engaging with a number of important strands in educational research thinking. I was informed by a student that some of their colleagues had registered an unhappiness with the seeming lack of ‘content’ in the module.
I felt unsettled by this. My internal narratives immediately began accusing me of ‘failing’ the students, of not being a ‘good teacher’, etc. I had to pause, disrupt the flow of mental agitation.
In this pause came to mind a Zen story that I felt spoke to the situation. The story goes something like this:
A university professor came to a great Zen master to learn about Zen. The Zen master invited the professor to take tea with him. The Zen master began to pour the tea into the guest’s cup, and continued to pour, and pour, the tea overflowing and spilling on the floor. Eventually, the professor could hold back no more and called on the Zen master to stop pouring the tea. Thinking, perhaps, that the master was inattentive the professor asked the master to recognise the error he had made, that “the cup is full, no more will go in”. In response the Zen master said: “Like this cup you are full of your own opinions and pre-conceptions. How can I show you Zen unless you first empty your cup?”.
At the time I saw this as referring to the students wanting to be ‘filled’ with content. A number of questions then formulated in my mind, questions I thought I could use in response to what I anticipated as a chorus of complaints about the ‘lack’ of content:
- How much content would you require to feel full?
- Is information the same as knowledge?
- Is knowledge the same as understanding?
My speculations and anticipations were to be confounded. No questions about content arose during the student presentations. All seemed well after all. The final session involved a structured activity to guide the students to think and plan for their module assignment. They had already been provided with an assignment brief. Again this differed slightly from practice in the programme where students were often provided with suggested assignment questions or titles. As an indication of my pedagogic stance I made clear that I would not field questions that asked for direct guidance, that such questions were a matter for discussion between students and their assignment tutor. Instead, having gone through the guided activity I invited them to share their initial thoughts on their assignment. The first student outlined their plan and suggested how it might help them build towards their thesis research.
Then the next student asked the following type of question: ‘Should I do this or that?”.
I tried to reflect the question back by reframing it so that it directed the student to the dilemma they felt in relation to the task – that is, what did the assignment brief ask them to consider and did they think their initial ideas helped them address that brief?
“But should I do this or that?”.
Again, another round of attempts to reframe or redirect the dependent question.
I thought that maybe it was now clear that I would not answer dependent questions. But no. It was as if I had actually said: “Please. please, let me tell you what is right and what is wrong”.
Even though a number of students started to intervene to suggest ways their colleagues might reframe their questions there was still this insistence to pose dependent questions.
My frustration grew.
Faced with another dependent question I eventually called a stop. I made it clear that I would not answer such questions.
At this point a student stood up stating that if I wasn’t going to tell them anything she might as well go. In this statement she claimed that I was saying that they could do whatever they wanted.
There was a pause.
What would I do?
Would this anger spread and a mass walkout occur?
What an interesting construction of the pedagogy. By not telling students what to do to ‘pass the test’ then anything counted. But of course, that logic is incorrect. Let me explain, as I did to the remaining students.
I felt I needed to make explicit my pedagogic stance. So let me go back to the Sen story earlier and use it to explicate what I thought was going on in that weekend.
A university professor came to a great Zen master to learn about Zen.
It could be argued that there was a presumption on the part of many students that weekend that ‘doctoral’ study was matter of ‘learning’ from a ‘master’ explicator (as Jacques Rancière would put it). That is, enter a relationship structured around one who knows and one who lacks such knowledge. You could say that most education enacts this social arrangement.
But what is the problem with ‘learning’ in this context?
The Zen master invited the professor to take tea with him. The Zen master began to pour the tea into the guest’s cup, and continued to pour, and pour, the tea overflowing and spilling on the floor. Eventually, the professor could hold back no more and called on the Zen master to stop pouring the tea. Thinking, perhaps, that the master was inattentive the professor asked the master to recognise the error he had made, that “the cup is full, no more will go in”.
In refusing the role of ‘master explicator’ not only was the presumption of the social order challenged but by explicitly refusing both this role and the relational ‘other’ – the student as unknowing, this placed back upon students the burden of freedom – the reality that a certain ontological choice was made, a role identified. There are times when learning, when doctoral education, is and perhaps should be uncomfortable. Perhaps it is those moments of existential disruption that the most powerful learning occurs.
In response the Zen master said: “Like this cup you are full of your own opinions and pre-conceptions. How can I show you Zen unless you first empty your cup?”.
What is our responsibility then as educators? Is it to ‘satisfy’ students as customers? Is it to validate ourselves by seeking their approval, even love? Or is it to invite them, in all its uncomfortableness, to recognise the presumptions they bring on entering the classroom (to recognise our own presumptions both pedagogic and psychic) and to empty them and open themselves to understanding and wisdom?